Ministry of Foreign Affairs & International Cooperation Republic Of Somaliland



Somaliland has a long history that goes back thousands of years. 10,000 year old Neolithic paintings in Las Geel, near Hargeisa, the capital, show that Somaliland was home to the earliest civilizations in the world. Somaliland, as part of the Land of Punt was a major trading partner with ancient Egyptians as records during the reign of Sahura of the Fifth Dynasty around 2250 BCE indicate. The coastal cities of Zeila, Berbera and Maydh were deeply involved in spice trade with the Romans. In the 7th century, Islam was introduced to Somaliland, and by the 13th century had a thriving Islamic sultanate, Adal, whose main port was Zeila. But the modern history of Somaliland started in the 19th century as presented chronologically below: • 1870 - The Egyptian flag was hoisted at Bulhar and Berbera, and Egyptian authority over Somaliland was recognized. • Feb, 1884 - Britain occupied the former Egyptian Somaliland, where Egyptians were forced to withdraw from Somaliland due to the Mahdi Rebellion in the Egyptian Sudan. • Jul, 1887 – The British Somaliland Protectorate was established. Major A. Hunt of Great Britain, representing his government, drew up protection treaties with several Somaliland clans guaranteeing them military support, in case of attack from other neighbouring territories, which were occupied by other Europeans. As a result of these treaties, Great Britain sent its Consuls to the Somaliland coastal towns of Berbera, Bulahar, and Syla. • Aug, 1940- Mar, 1941 – Italy occupied British Somaliland. • Apr, 1960 - The Legislative Council of British Somaliland passed a resolution requesting independence. • May, 1960 – the British Government stated that it would be prepared to grant independence to the protectorate of British Somaliland. • Jun 26, 1960 - British Somaliland protectorate obtained independence as the State of Somaliland. Mr. Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal who previously served as an official member of British Somaliland Protectorate’s Executive Council and the Leader of the government business in the Legislative Council became the Prime Minister of the State of Somaliland before the unification. • Jul 1st, 1960 – the State of Somaliland united with the Trust Territory of Somalia on its independence day to form Somalia Republic. • Jun, 1961- The majority (63%) of the people of the State of Somaliland voted against the unitary constitution in a referendum. • Dec, 1961 – A group of army officers staged a rebellion against the government to reinstate Somaliland independence. • Oct, 1969 – The military toppled the civilian government in coup d’état. • Apr, 1981 – Somali National Movement (SNM) formed. • Jan, 1991 – Somalia government collapsed. • Apr-May, 1991 – Burao conference was held in which Somaliland reclaimed its Sovereignty. • Jan-May, 1993 – Borama national Reconciliation Conference was held, the National Charter was adopted, and Mr. Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal was elected president. • Oct, 1996-Feb, 1997 – Hargeisa Somaliland Communities Conference and an interim constitution was adopted. • May, 2001 – The Constitution of Somaliland was overwhelmingly (97%) approved in a referendum. • May 2002 – President Mohamed H Ibrahim Egal passed away • Dec, 2002 – Local municipal elections were held. • April, 2003 – First presidential elections were held and MR. Riyale Dahir Kahin the first president elected by popular vote • Sep, 2005 – First parliamentary elections were held. • Jun, 2010 – Second presidential elections were held where Ahmed Mohamed Mohamoud Silaanyo was elected president • Nov, 2012 - Second municipal elections were held • Mar, 2017 – Parliamentary and Presidential elections will be held
© 2016 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Somaliland